Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Racism, Prejudice, Or Discrimination Against Someone Else...

Racism is defined as â€Å"Prejudice, or discrimination against someone else of a different race or religion.†(Dictionary.com) The way literature approaches racism is by the way they display the characters within the story. Since the author won’t get through to people if they just simply say that a person was racist, they use characters such as Tom Robinson from To Kill a Mocking Bird. Or from a modern point of view, racism isn’t always up front to someone’s face it can also be from social media, because people are able to say what they want across the internet and have no consequences for the action. Racism is a very controversial, and sensitive topic that has been tackled by many Novelists, which have written things like, To Kill a Mocking†¦show more content†¦The book had many generations in the main family, and that’s the reason there was racism from black to black, they treated their own family the way they would the white community. Further to the end Beneatha says â€Å"It means someone who is willing to up on his own culture and submerge himself completely in the dominant, and in this case oppressive culture† (Hansberry 205). She is mad at Walter for accepting the bribe Mr. Linder offers to them, to not stay in that neighborhood because of their skin color. Mr. Linder is a part of the American community life and was elected to go to the Colored family’s house and persuade them not to live there. Mr. Linder says â€Å"Well I don’t understand why you people are reacting this way. What do you think you are going to gain by moving into a neighborhood where you are unwanted?†(Hansberry 118). Mr. Linder is trying to move the family in spite of helping the value of the house, it starts to sadden people knowing that someone will do a plethora of things to get what they desire. A book called The Help, was published in 2009, in the book a white woman interviews African American Maids and gives people a different perspective of what life was like as a mistreated maid. â€Å"We want to show your perspective †¦ so people might understand what it’s like from your side.†(Stockett 191). This was the statement that persuaded Abilene, and Minny to answer these questions from Skeeter. Racism is clearly shown in the bookShow MoreRelatedPrejudice And Discrimination : Prejudice Essay1527 Words   |  7 PagesPrejudice and Discrimination Prejudice and discrimination can take several different forms. The first item I would like to delineate in this essay is the correlations between prejudice, racism, and discrimination. Prejudices quite often stem from ignorance or a lack of understanding. Essentially, prejudice strips away any individualism that belongs to a person and creates a negative opinion as soon as a connection is made to the group with which the person belongs. This happens because the prejudiceRead MoreP1 – Explain the Range of Meanings Attached to Citizenship, Diversity and the Associated Terminology1297 Words   |  6 Pagesto citizenship, diversity and the associated terminology Racism Racism is prejudice or discrimination directed against someone of a different race based on such a belief. An example of racism in the public services comes from a news report on channel 4 earlier this year. The report tells how there has 120 racism cases in the Metropolitan Police over the past decade, but only one officer was dismissed as a result. This shows that racism is common in the public services but is not necessarily dealtRead MorePrejudice and Discrimination Essay913 Words   |  4 PagesPrejudice and Discrimination Prejudice: 1) an opinion formed without careful thought.2) an unreasonable or unfair feeling (in favour of, or against something). Discrimination : 1) to be the difference between. 2) (with favour of, against ) to treat favourably or unfairly. These are the dictionaries definitions of what the two words mean, obviously very briefly. Different forms of prejudice and discrimination are the underlining of racism, sexism, ageism, nationalismRead MorePersuasive Essay About Prejudice814 Words   |  4 PagesHuman ignorance is in the air, because racism is around me everywhere. If you look different they discriminate, and it leads to violence and division. Our society believes that we can live life being prejudice, discriminating and antagonizing others based on their race. The sun had just gone down. I heard a dreadful gun shot. The screams from down the street. The screeching high pitch voice of a mother crying because she had just lost one of her two sons. Now comes judgement day and there are protestorsRead MorePrejudice Is A Hostile Or Negative Attitude Toward People898 Words   |  4 PagesPrejudice is a hostile or negative attitude toward people who are in a distinguishable group that is based solely on their membership within that group. It has three components: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. The cognitive component of prejudice consist of stereotypes, generalizations about a group where characteristics are believed to be shared by all in the group. Examples of this would be believing that all Muslims are terrorists, all Asians must be smart, and all Americans are lazy. WhileRead MoreAppedix C673 Words   |  3 Pages | |Discrimination |The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, esp. on the| | |grounds of race, age, or sex. | |Institutional discrimination |Unfair prejudice against individuals as a result of the way an organization works or | | Read MoreWhat Is Race: My Reflection Essay887 Words   |  4 Pagestoday to read the article titled â€Å"What is Race† by Victor M. Fernandez, RN, BSN and found myself agreeably intrigued and in admiration of his thoughts regarding race. Victor touched on an extremely insightful and significant topic; one that most people have sturdy opinions about. Race – what is it? What does this mean to you? What does it mean to our upcoming careers in the nursing field? I trust that how we characterize and assess our awareness of race is due exclusively to how we were raised. IRead MoreSocial Justice Is The Fair And Proper Recognition Of Current Laws2025 Words   |  9 Pagespossessions, race or religion are to be treated with great equality. Social Justice aims to remove prejudice to particular people who share the natural law of their race, gender, religion etc. Several Social Justice issues are present today, and while not all are targeted at a particular ethnic group, gender of race, they will still affect their lives in some outstanding ways. Here is a list: - Racism - Economic Justice - Environment - Justice against prejudice to particular races and ReconciliationRead MoreEssay on Racism579 Words   |  3 Pages Discrimination - Racism nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Racism, the belief that one race possesses inherent traits that make that particular race superior, or racial prejudice. Discrimination has always been an issue globally, and within our nation. While it was more commonly accepted and practiced decades ago, it is still quite prominent in the hearts of many people worldwide and is demonstrated through their behavior. It was common practice to keep slaves, or people who submit entirely to another’sRead MoreSch 33 Equality and Inclusion in Health Essay1552 Words   |  7 Pageschildren to see diversity in a positive way. And always remember that every child is Unique. Mean by Equality. Is about treating people fairly, regardless of their differences, by ensuring that they have access to the same life opportunities as everyone else, i.e. that they have equal opportunities. Each individual in society experiences opportunities to achieve and flourish, which are good as the opportunities experienced by other people and to be treated with equal concern so they are able to progress

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Similarities Between Edgar Allan Poe And Cask Of Amontillado

Edgar Allan Poe, a writer known for his mysterious and dark works, has had a lot of time perfecting his style of writing in short stories. His short stories, all usually dealing with the concept of death, relates back to his childhood, linking to his past experiences. As a small child, Poes father had abandoned his family, leaving his mother to take care of him and his sister. When Poe turned three, his mother had passed away due to tuberculosis. Exposed to death at such a young age, it connects to his writing style and how he incorporates death in his stories. Throughout the course of his childhood, Poe had encountered many other traumatic experiences dealing with the deaths of loved ones. The repeating occurrence of death in his life†¦show more content†¦Based on The Cask of Amontillado, Montresor says, for the half of a century no mortal has disturbed them. In pace requiescat (Edgar Allan Poe 7). The phrase in pace requiescat translates to rest in peace. By using the phra se rest in peace, it gives the story mystery, putting an eerie tone to the story. Additionally, in the short story, The Black Cat, the narrator reminisces about the experiences he has had with his black cat. He and his wife, both animal lovers, had gotten many pets, his black cat, warming up to him immediately. Pluto, the cat, had been the narrators favorite pet, creating a special bond between them. The narrator soon developed a short temper, and had started to lash out on everyone around him, having sudden outbursts for nothing of significance. Pluto, who had once been his playmate, had turned into a creature that the narrator had felt such loathing and hatred towards. The black cat had followed the narrator, everywhere, acting like a shadow and pestering him. After days of complete and utter irritation and displeasure, the narrator scraped out the cats eye. Shortly after, the narrator hangs the cat, killing it immediately. A new black cat shows up and the narrator explains his fe elings towards the cat with specific words. Poe also uses word choice in The Black Cat to express a cruel and eerie tone throughout his story. He uses specific words to describe emotions that hisShow MoreRelatedThe Masque of the Red Death vs. the Cask of Amontillado1564 Words   |  7 PagesLester Small LITR 220 24 February 2013 The Masque of the Red Death vs. The Cask of Amontillado â€Å"The Masque of the Red Death† and â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† written by Edgar Allan Poe are somewhat different. The major themes of these stories differ significantly, as does the emphasis placed on each character which dealt more to The Cask of Amontillado† than to â€Å"The Masque of the Red Death† Regardless of this, the stories are similar in many ways. For instance, both belong to the literacy of theRead MoreThe Cask Of Amontillado : William Shakespeare1450 Words   |  6 PagesFinal Paper 17 December 2014 The Cask of Amontillado: Shakespeare in American Literature There are a few names in literature which represent the ability to captivate an audience with suspense and gloom. Though masters of different genres, Edgar Allen Poe and William Shakespeare both embody this unique ability. One of Poe’s work in particular resembles the beauty and darkness that is found in Shakespeare’s tragedies. In the intriguing short story â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado,† two wealthy gentlemen from anRead MoreCommen Elemements of Fiction 1570 Words   |  7 Pagesliteracy genius Edgar Allen Poe. Most of Poe’s works do not have the slightest bit of joy or happiness in them. His literature mainly consists of a dark and gothic mood; mostly due to the fact that his actual life was worse than his stories. For those who have read a few of his stories or poems you might notice a similarity in plot. In his worksâ€Å" The Cask of Amontillado,† â€Å" The Black Cat,† and â€Å" The Tell-Tale Heart,† there is clear similarity of plot between the three stories. In â€Å" The Cask of AmontilladoRead MoreComparing Fall of the House of Usher and The Cask of Amontillado1299 Words   |  5 PagesCompare Contrast Edgar Allan Poe Short Stories Introduction The Fall of the House of Usher and The Cask of Amontillado are two of Edgar Allan Poes most well-known and noteworthy stories. This paper compares and contrasts the two stories and provides and outline as well. The Fall of the House of Usher is based on terror just as The Cask of Amontillado (hereafter called Cask) is based on terror but there are many different components that Poe uses that contrast with the Cask, and they willRead MoreAnalysis of Edgar Allan Poes Writing Style Essay776 Words   |  4 Pageshorror, Edgar Allan Poe is known for his Gothic writing style. His style is created through his use of punctuation, sentence structure, word choice, tone, and figurative language. Punctuation-wise; dashes, exclamation marks, semicolons, and commas are a favorite of Poe. His sentences vary greatly; their structures are influenced by punctuation. Much of his word choice set the tone of his works. Figurative language colors his writings with description. Such is observed in the similarities between twoRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe s The Red Death And Cask Of Amontillado1595 Words   |  7 Pages American author and poet, Edgar Allan Poe, was born January 19th, 1809, and died at the age of 40 on October 7th, 1849. Poe had a horrendous childhood. As a child, he was abandoned by his father, David Poe Jr., and later, his foster father, John Allan. His mother, Eliza Poe, died of tuberculosis, along with his foster mother, Frances Allan and Virginia Clemm, Poe’s wife. After the death of his wife, Poe attempted suicide out of grief. The traumatic events of his life affected Poe’s writing styleRead MoreFive Short Stories of Edgar Allan Poe Essay1311 Words   |  6 PagesBarnabà ¡s Kanik Five short stories of Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) pioneered many of the most enduring forms of American popular culture, including detective story and the Gothic or sensational tale. I will compare and contrast five short stories of Poe: The Gold-Bug, The Purloined Letter, â€Å"Thou Art the Man†, The Cask of Amontillado and The Pit and the Pendulum. The genre, the purpose and role of the narrator and the parallelism between all of the stories will be examined. Read More Big Heads and Short Tempers: Edgar Allan Poe in Context Essay2064 Words   |  9 PagesEdgar Allan Poe was the epitome of a tormented genius. He possessed uncontrollable and self-inflicted internal problems. In addition, Poe was plagued by external difficulties—some preventable, some not. Most doctors today would pronounce Poe to be bipolar, chronically depressed, and perhaps even OCD. Most people today, and any day, would declare Poe to be self-obsessed and arrogant, or—at the least—snobbish. His personal life would also be considered less than ideal, though how much he was personallyRead MoreGothic Literature : The Dark Side Of Romanticism1518 Words   |  7 PagesGothic literature is the dark side of Romanticism. The theme of Gothic stories is either mysterious, horror, or even death. Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allan Poe are authors that demonstrate Gothic literature. Some of their work include, â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† written by Edgar Allan Poe and â€Å"The Birthmark† by Nathaniel Hawthorne. The Cask of Amontillado tells how the narrator Montresor seeks revenge on his acquaintance, Fortunato. Montresor to desperate measures and did not catch. However, in â€Å"TheRead More Juxtaposing the Most Similar Contradiction in Edgar Allan Poes Work2077 Words   |  9 PagesThroughout all of Edgar Allan Poes works are common ideas that oppose each such as madness versus sanity, reality versus the imagined reality and life versus death. Usually these sentiments are taken as contrasting ideas with little similarities to each other, like black and white. However, many of these motifs are situated in the grey category. Poe uses the communal thought pathway to highlight its antithesis; the pathway of grey. With the new pathway, he emphasizes the similarities of the opposing

Chees Daughter Essay Example For Students

Chees Daughter Essay A characters environment reveals a great deal about his personality. In Chees Daughter by Juanita Platero and Siyowin Miller this theory is displayed. In this story a young Navajo Indian girl is taken from her home by her deceased mothers parents. Two different environments which reflect values and personalities are conflicting. A young traditional Navajo,Chee , and a non-traditional Navajo businessman, Old Man Fat , fight over Chees daughter, Little One. The two distinctly different settings in this story reflect the personalities of the protagonist,Chee , and the antagonistOld Man Fat. Chees setting reflects his caring nature. He shows this by caring for the land he lives on like a father would do for his son. He shows that he cares for the land by thinking that if he sang the proper songs, if he cared for the land faithfully, it would not forsake him now(82) Chee is trying to grow food and he thinks that if he cares for the land and respects it that the earth would in turn make the food grow well. Another way to show this is how Chee thought that if he Take care of the land and it will take care of you.(81) Chee cared and respected the land and in turn the land gave him food for which he would to barter back Little One from Old Man Fat. Chee treats the land as an equal. he felt so strongly that just now this was something between himself and the land.(82) Chee treats the land as an equal, respects it and it respects him by giving him the food he needs. Where he lives is pure and real, like the earth. The setting Old Man Fat chooses to live in reflects his personality and values. Old Man Fat owns a small store one the side of the highway that disregards some Navaho customs and beliefs. He does this by flaunting pseudo-Navajo designs on the roof.(78) This is very disrespectful to his tribe. He does not even try to find some real Navajo symbols with real meaning. Another way Old Man Fats values are portrayed in his setting is how he has a garish blue door which faced north to the highway.(78) Navajo Indians face their hogans, homes, to the east so that they awake with the sun which symbolizes a new beginning. Lastly Old Man Fats setting reflects his personality is when he has his grand-daughter, Little One, stand in a hogan so that tourists could see inside a real Navajo home 25 c. This depicts his personality because it shows that he would rather make money than to have his grand-daughter shown-off like an exhibit. In the story two contrasting settings display opposite personalities. Old Man Fats disrespectful, greedy nature clashes with Chees respectful and unselfish ways. This world would be a whole lot better if it was filled with more people like Chee instead of those profiteering gluttons like Old Man Fat. Category: English

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Obligations of an Entrepreneur to Consumers and Investors

Introduction This paper aims to discuss the obligations of an entrepreneur to consumers and to investors. In this case, Carl can incur liabilities to several parties, in particular, to such companies Widget World and Widget Universe. Secondly, one has to speak about Emma who purchased Carl’s products.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Obligations of an Entrepreneur to Consumers and Investors specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More We need to make recommendations that can help Carl avoid legal responsibility. On the whole, this situation describes different types of conflicts which may occur in contract law. Prior to evaluating Carl’s possible strategies we need to identify the essential components of a contract; they include consent of the parties, offer and acceptance, consideration (Waddams, 2010; Yates, 1999). Without them an agreement between the sides does not have legal or binding power. This informati on is crucial for us because Widget International has entered contracts and it is necessary for us to assess them in terms of their validity. On the basis of this analysis, we will be better able to assess the position of Widget International. Overall, this case illustrates a situation when an entrepreneur can incur several liabilities due to the fact he involuntarily entered into several agreements. Carl’s Actions Tacit contract with Widget World At first, we need to discuss Carl’s obligations to Widget World. He did not sign any agreement with this enterprise; however, he made an offer to them by saying that he is sell products to them, while the opposite side accepted this offer. Thus, in this case we have two essential components of a contract, offer and acceptance (Waddams, 2010). To some extent, this situation can be described as a tacit contract. This is one of those cases when there is no document that can confirm the existence of a contract; at least this cont ract is not drawn up properly. However, one of the sides has made a promise which can be viewed as an offer. Carl sent Widget World a fax in which he expressed readiness to enter into agreement with this company. So, one can say that this agreement has a binding force. Judging from it Carl’s company Widget International will be forces to sell its products exclusively to Widget World at a certain price, namely, $ 10 per a product. If he prefers to sell goods to a different enterprise, he would have to pay indemnity to Widget World. This is one of the hypothetical scenarios and Carl must be ready for it. Theoretically Widget World can sue Carl for breach of contract. Yet, we can maintain that Widget International will be able to avoid liabilityAdvertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Carl can defend his position by pointing out that this tacit contract lacks such an essential e lement as consideration. In other words, the parties did not specify the obligations and rights of both parties in case the contract is breached. Therefore, this agreement is rebuttable. Apart from that, Carl can repudiate the claims of Widget World by arguing that fax letter must not be regarded as an offer but rather as an invitation to treat, which means that one of parties only invites to opposite side to evaluate a proffer and it should not be confused with a binding offer. Thus, Carl can adopt this line of defense if he does not want to work with Widget World. This is the first conflict that Carl may have to resolve in the future, and this information that we have presented can help him to disclaim responsibility provided that he manages to find a different business partner. Exclusive contract with Widget Universe Furthermore, according to the exclusive contract, this entrepreneur is obliged to sell all his products to Widget Universe at a fixed price, namely $ 8.00 per widget . These terms are not very advantages for Carl especially given the fact that he has a more lucrative offer. We do not know the amount of compensation that has to be paid to WU provided that Carl violates this agreement. There is great likelihood that this company will file a lawsuit against Carl if he chooses to work with Widget World. Unlike the previous case, in this situation there is a legal document which substantiates the fact of agreement. Moreover, it was concluded by a representative of Widget International. So, it will be more difficult to abrogate this agreement. However, one should not suppose that this exclusive contract cannot be repudiated because this agreement was signed without Carl’s consent. The acceptance of the contract by each side is an indispensible element of any contract, without this element, the very contract is not valid (Waddams, 2010). It is worth noting that this agreement with Widget Universe was negotiated by Ivan, who owned 50 per cent of the shares. Fifty percent is not a control stock and Ivan did not have a right to enter into this contract on behalf of Widget International. The fact that he owned 50 per cent of company’s shares did not grant him the right to use the property of Widget International. This is why this contract can be rendered illegitimate. This is how Carl can defend his position and avoid responsibility.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Obligations of an Entrepreneur to Consumers and Investors specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Still, in order to give a definitive answer, we need to know more about the rights of the second shareholder, Ivan. According to this case, Carl is the President and Director of Widget International but we do not know if he conferred any executive rights to Ivan. Despite these limitations, we may still argue that Carl is in a more advantages position, and he will be able to cancel the contract signe d by Ivan. There will be another dispute that Carl will need to resolve. Fifty percent of the shares are owned by Ivan, and it is not clear whether this person will retain his stock or he will allow Carl to buy them back. Emma’s claim for reimbursement Finally, we need to speak about the compensation that Carl has to give to Emma who procured 50 prototypes of his widgets. According the Canada Consumer Product Safety Act, a buyer is entitled to reimbursement for defective product (Government of Canada, 2010). This law is quite applicable to this situation even despite the fact that this legislative act focuses primarily on the hazardous products which may endanger the health of a consumer. This law requires manufacturers to inform customers about possible defects of a product. This provision is crucial in this situation. The thing is that we do not know whether Carl warned Emma about short durability of the widgets which she purchased. If Carl told her that these widgets were prototypes and they could be broken within a short time, then Emma would not be eligible for reimbursement. We have to emphasize an idea that according to Canadian laws, a consumer has a right to be informed about the product, and this is one of seller’s responsibilities. Thus, the outcome of this conflict largely depends on what exactly Carl had said about the products. Still, there is great likelihood that Carl would have to indemnify Emma, especially if there is any document that proves the financial transaction. Apart from that, Carl can claim that the products might have been damaged because of misuse rather than poor design. Yet if he adopts this defensive line, he would have to start long litigation with Emma, and this process can become both expensive and time-consuming. Moreover, this litigation can potentially damage the reputation of Widget International. Thus, it is more advisable to settle this conflict without court’s intervention.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion In this paper we have tried to illustrate different situation in which the contract can or cannot be denounced. There are several essential elements of contract like consent, offer, acceptance, and considerations. Carl has faced a situation when he may bear responsibility to different parties. In each of these cases, he may repudiate the agreements. Nonetheless, it has to be admitted that some circumstances of this case are not fully known to us, namely, the case does not tell us what kind of information he provided to Emma. Most likely, Carl will have to give indemnity to the end user. Furthermore, given the available information, we can say that Widget International will be able to repudiate the contract signed with Widget Universe and may accept or reject the agreement with Widget World. Reference List Government of Canada. (2010) â€Å"Canada Consumer Product Safety Act†. Accessed from https://www.canada.ca/en.html Waddams S. M 2010. The Law of Contracts. Toron to: Canada Law Book, Incorporated. Yates. R. (1999) Business Law in Canada. Toronto: Prentice Hall Canada. This essay on Obligations of an Entrepreneur to Consumers and Investors was written and submitted by user Memphis Gillespie to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Political Party Logos - Republican Elephant and Democrat Donkey

Political Party Logos - Republican Elephant and Democrat Donkey Republicans have long been associated with elephants, and Democrats have embraced the  donkey for centuries in American politics. Related Story:  Why Republicans Are Red and Democrats Are Blue But where did those icons come from? And why have the elephant and donkey symbols stood the test of time? About the Democratic Donkey The Democrats use of the donkey has its roots in the presidential campaign of 1828, often described as one of the dirtiest political campaigns in U.S. history. Related Story: Do Negative Ads Work? President John Quincy Adams was being challenged by  Democratic Andrew Jackson, who had a colorful history that his opponents sought to capitalize on.  As 19th Century history expert Robert McNamara has written: For those who detested Andrew Jackson, there was a goldmine of material, as Jackson was famed for his incendiary temper and had led a life filled with violence and controversy. He had taken part in several duels, killing a man in a notorious one in 1806. When commanding troops in 1815, he had ordered the execution of militia members accused of desertion. Even Jackson’s marriage became fodder for campaign attacks. Jacksons political opponents took to referring to him as a jackass, a  derogatory term the candidate eventually embraced. Explains Smithsonian: Emboldened by his detractors, Jackson embraced the image as the symbol of his campaign, rebranding the donkey as steadfast, determined, and willful, instead of wrong-headed, slow, and obstinate. Related Story:  Print a Coloring Page Showing  the Donkey and Elephant The image of Jackson as a donkey stuck. In January of 1870,  Harpers Weekly political cartoonist and loyal  Republican  Thomas Nast began using the donkey to represent Democrats on a regular basis and the imagery stuck. The cartoon was titled  A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion. About the Republican Elephant Nast is responsible for the Republican elephant, as well. He first use an elephant to represent Republicans in a  Harpers Weekly cartoon in November of 1874. He would go on to use it many more times, though it remains uncertain why, specifically, Nast chose an elephant to represent the Republican Party. Wrote The New York Times: By the 1880 presidential election, cartoonists for other publications had incorporated the elephant symbol into their own work, and by March 1884 Nast could refer to the image he had created for the Republican Party as â€Å"The Sacred Elephant.†

Sunday, March 1, 2020

The Archaeology and History of Bitumen

The Archaeology and History of Bitumen Bitumen- also known as asphaltum or tar- is a black, oily, viscous form of petroleum, a naturally-occurring organic byproduct of decomposed plants. It is waterproof and flammable, and this remarkable natural substance has been used by humans for a wide variety of tasks and tools for at least the past 40,000 years. There are a number of processed types of bitumen used in the modern world, designed for paving streets and roofing houses, as well as additives to diesel or other gas oils. The pronunciation of bitumen is BICH-eh-men in British English and by-TOO-men in North America. What Bitumen Is Natural bitumen is the thickest form of petroleum there is, made up of 83% carbon, 10% hydrogen and lesser amounts of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and other elements. It is a natural polymer of low molecular weight with a remarkable ability to change with temperature variations: at lower temperatures, it is rigid and brittle, at room temperature it is flexible, at higher temperatures bitumen flows. Bitumen deposits occur naturally throughout the worldthe best known are Trinidads Pitch Lake and the La Brea Tar Pit in California, but significant deposits are found in the Dead Sea, Venezuela, Switzerland, and northeastern Alberta, Canada. The chemical composition and consistency of these deposits vary significantly. In some places, bitumen extrudes naturally from terrestrial sources, in others it appears in liquid pools which can harden into mounds, and in still others it oozes from underwater seeps, washing up as tarballs along sandy beaches and rocky shorelines. Uses and Processing In ancient times, bitumen was used for a huge number of things: as a sealant or adhesive, as building mortar, as incense, and as decorative pigment and texture on pots, buildings or human skin. The material was also useful in waterproofing canoes and other water transport, and in the mummification process toward the end of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt. The method of processing bitumen was nearly universal: heat it until the gasses condense and it melts, then add tempering materials to tweak the recipe to the proper consistency. Adding minerals such as ochre makes bitumen thicker; grasses and other vegetable matter add stability; waxy/oily elements such as pine resin or beeswax make it more viscous. Processed bitumen was more expensive as a trade item than unprocessed, because of the cost of the fuel consumption. The earliest known use of bitumen was by Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals some 40,000 years ago. At Neanderthal sites such as Gura Cheii Cave (Romania) and Hummal and Umm El Tlel in Syria, bitumen was found adhering to stone tools, probably to fasten a wooden or ivory haft to the sharp-edged tools. In Mesopotamia, during the late Uruk and Chalcolithic periods at sites such as Hacinebi Tepe in Syria, bitumen was used for the construction of buildings and water-proofing of reed boats, with among other uses. Evidence of Uruk Expansionist Trade Research into bitumen sources has illuminated the history of the expansionist period of Mesopotamian Uruk. An intercontinental trading system was established by Mesopotamia during the Uruk period (3600-3100 BC), with the creation of trading colonies in what is today southeastern Turkey, Syria, and Iran. According to seals and other evidence, the trade network involved textiles from southern Mesopotamia and copper, stone, and timber from Anatolia, but the presence of sourced bitumen has enabled scholars to map out the trade. For example, much of the bitumen in Bronze age Syrian sites has been found to have originated from the Hit seepage on the Euphrates River in southern Iraq. Using historical references and geological survey, scholars have identified several sources of bitumen in Mesopotamia and the Near East. By performing analyses using a number of different spectroscopy, spectrometry, and elemental analytical techniques, these scholars have defined the chemical signatures for many of the seeps and deposits. Chemical analysis of archaeological samples has been somewhat successful in identifying the provenance of the artifacts. Bitumen and Reed Boats Schwartz and colleagues (2016) suggest that the onset of bitumen as a trade good began first because it was used as waterproofing on the reed boats that were used to ferry people and goods across the Euphrates. By the Ubaid period of the early 4th millennium BC, bitumen from northern Mesopotamian sources reached the Persian Gulf. The earliest reed boat discovered to date was coated with bitumen, at the site of H3 at As-Sabiyah in Kuwait, dated about 5000 BC; its bitumen was found to have come from the Ubaid site of Mesopotamia. Asphaltum samples from the slightly later site of Dosariyah in Saudi Arabia, were from bitumen seepages in Iraq, part of the wider Mesopotamian trade networks of Ubaid Period 3. The Bronze Age Mummies of Egypt The use of bitumen in embalming techniques on Egyptian mummies was important beginning at the end of the New Kingdom (after 1100 BC)in fact, the word from which mummy is derived mumiyyah means bitumen in Arabic. Bitumen was a major constituent for Third Intermediate period and Roman period Egyptian embalming techniques, in addition to traditional blends of pine resins, animal fats, and beeswax. Several Roman writers such as Diodorus Siculus (first century BC) and Pliny (first century AD) mention bitumen as being sold to Egyptians for embalming processes. Until advanced chemical analysis was available, black balms used throughout the Egyptian dynasties were assumed to have been treated with bitumen, mixed with fat/oil, beeswax, and resin. However, in a recent study Clark and colleagues (2016) found that none of the balms on mummies created prior to the New Kingdom contained bitumen, but the custom began in the Third Intermediate (ca 1064-525 BC) and Late (ca 525-332 BC) periods and became most prevalent after 332, during the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. Bitumen trade in Mesopotamia continued well after the end of the Bronze Age. Russian archaeologists recently discovered a Greek amphora full of bitumen on the Taman peninsula on the northern shore of the Black Sea. Several samples including numerous large jars and other objects were recovered from the Roman-era port of Dibba in the United Arab Emirates, containing or treated with bitumen from the Hit seepage in Iraq or other unidentified Iranian sources. Mesoamerica and Sutton Hoo Recent studies in pre-Classic and post-classic period Mesoamerica have found bitumen was used to stain human remains, perhaps as a ritual pigment. But more likely, say researchers Argez and associates, the staining may have resulted from using heated bitumen applied to stone tools which were used to dismember those bodies. Fragments of shiny black lumps of bitumen were found scattered throughout the 7th-century ship burial at Sutton Hoo, England, in particular within the burial deposits near remains of a helmet. When excavated and first analyzed in 1939, the pieces were interpreted as Stockholm tar, a substance creating by burning pine wood, but recent reanalysis (Burger and colleagues 2016) has identified the shards as bitumen having come from a Dead Sea source: very rare but clear evidence of a continuing trade network between Europe and the Mediterranean during the early Medieval period. Chumash of California In Californias Channel Islands, the prehistoric period Chumash used bitumen as body paint during curing, mourning and burial ceremonies. They also used it to attach shell beads onto objects such as mortars and pestles and steatite pipes, and they used it for hafting projectile points to shafts and fishhooks to cordage. Asphaltum was also used for waterproofing basketry and caulking sea-going canoes. The earliest identified bitumen in the Channel Islands so far is in deposits dated between 10,000-7,000 cal BP at Cave of the Chimneys on San Miguel island. The presence of bitumen increases during the Middle Holocene (7000-3500 cal BP and basketry impressions and clusters of tarred pebbles show up as early as 5,000 years ago. The fluorescence of bitumen may be associated with the invention of the plank canoe (tomol) in the late Holocene (3500-200 cal BP). Native Californians traded asphaltum in liquid form and hand-shaped pads wrapped in grass and rabbit skin to keep it from sticking together. Terrestrial seeps were believed to produce a better quality adhesive and caulking for the tomol canoe, while tarballs were considered inferior. Sources Argez C, Batta E, Mansilla J, Pijoan C, and Bosch P. 2011. The origin of black pigmentation in a sample of Mexican prehispanic human bones. Journal of Archaeological Science 38(11):2979-2988.Brown KM. 2016. Asphaltum (bitumen) production in everyday life on the California Channel Islands. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 41:74-87.Brown KM, Connan J, Poister NW, Vellanoweth RL, Zumberge J, and Engel MH. 2014. Sourcing archaeological asphaltum (bitumen) from the California Channel Islands to submarine seeps. Journal of Archaeological Science 43:66-76.Burger P, Stacey RJ, Bowden SA, Hacke M, and Parnell J. 2016. Identification, Geochemical Characterisation and Significance of Bitumen among the Grave Goods of the 7th Century Mound 1 Ship-Burial at Sutton Hoo (Suffolk, UK). PLoS ONE 11(12):e0166276.Cà ¢rciumaru M, Ion R-M, Nitu E-C, and Stefanescu R. 2012. New evidence of adhesive as hafting material on Middle and Upper Palaeolithic artefacts from Gura Cheii-Rà ¢snov Cave (Romania ). Journal of Archaeological Science 39(7):1942-1950. Clark KA, Ikram S, and Evershed RP. 2016. The significance of petroleum bitumen in ancient Egyptian mummies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 374(2079).El Diasty WS, Mostafa AR, El Beialy SY, El Adl HA, and Edwards KJ. 2015. Organic geochemical characteristics of the Upper Cretaceous–Early Paleogene source rock and correlation with some Egyptian mummy bitumen and oil from the southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 8(11):9193-9204.Fauvelle M, Smith EM, Brown SH, and Des Lauriers MR. 2012. Asphaltum hafting and projectile point durability: an experimental comparison of three hafting methods. Journal of Archaeological Science 39(8):2802-2809.Jasim S, and Yousif E. 2014. Dibba: an ancient port on the Gulf of Oman in the early Roman era. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 25(1):50-79.Kostyukevich Y, Solovyov S, Kononikhin A, Popov I, and Nikolaev E. 2016. The investigation of the bitumen from anc ient Greek amphora using FT ICR MS, H/D exchange and novel spectrum reduction approach. Journal of Mass Spectrometry 51(6):430-436. Schwartz M, and Hollander D. 2016. The Uruk expansion as dynamic process: A reconstruction of Middle to Late Uruk exchange patterns from bulk stable isotope analyses of bitumen artifacts. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 7:884-899.Van de Velde T, De Vrieze M, Surmont P, Bodà © S, and Drechsler P. 2015. A geochemical study on the bitumen from Dosariyah (Saudi-Arabia): tracking Neolithic-period bitumen in the Persian Gulf. Journal of Archaeological Science 57:248-256.Wess JA, Olsen LD, and Haring Sweeney M. 2004. Asphalt (Bitumen). Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 59. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Thunder Heart Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 3

Thunder Heart - Essay Example Whose City†. The effects of social networking in urban environments for young adults, like the ones seen in the film, can have negative results attributed to them, especially in urban neighborhoods. As seen in the film, young adults would go out to neighborhood hangouts, like a bar or club, to meet people and dance. Such activities can be fun but also be misleading. As seen in the movie, the two young ladies, Maria and Blanca, went to a club just to dance and hangout. They happen to meet some guys who appear to be harmless and a friendship arises. As the friends begin to see each other more often they begin to learn more about one another. This is where misleading networking plays a role. One of the guys met at the bar happens to have associates within a drug ring and is tied to drug smuggling. Soon after, Maria and Blanca become smugglers for their new friends associates. Had the two girls not tried to network with others at the bar they might have evaded this ultimate outcome. Therefore, the n egative effect of social networking in these kinds environments is that people may seem to be one thing but are something quite different. In areas where drug trade is openly visible and common, like the setting in Columbia, social networking can be dangerous. This danger can also be associated in context with control of the urban cities. The danger associated to urban cities is the means of one’s sacrifices for survival. In deprived cities, like the one in the film, money is the most admired commodity. In areas where plantations and industries thrive, workers and laborers certainly do not share the profits attained by these businesses. Workers wages do not meet the bar for providing for their family and ones own personal needs therefore the danger of the drug trade looms. Drug distribution is highly recognized and sought after due to the large